Mythes de créationModifier
In spite of a constant development over the centuries, certain aspects of an Egyptian creation myth can be said to be relatively constant. These include a source of all things in the primeval waters, themselves a remnant of the Great Mother, and the presence of an Eye, the sun, that creates cosmos within the chaos of the surrounding waters. The sun, whether Atum, Ra, or Ptah, is also associated with a primeval mound or hill, much like the little fertile mounds left by the receding Nile after the annual floods and perhaps like the early sun coming over the horizon. The mound was symbolized by the great pyramids. The people of Heliopolis said their city was the primal mound, the center of creation. The primal mound is also equivalent to the clump of earth that is brought up from the primal waters in so many earth‐diver creation myths.
Cosmogonie d'Héliopolis : AtoumModifier
At Heliopolis, over the centuries Atum took many forms, rather like the Indian concept of Brahman. Atum or Ptah was the original god; Khepri (spelled in various ways—for example, Khoprer) is Atum made visible, and Ra is god as the sun. The Pyramid Texts tell us that Atum existed alone in the universe and that he created his brother and sister, Shu (air‐life) and Tefnut (moisture‐order) ex nihilo (see also Creation from Nothing) by masturbating or, as some texts claimed, by expectorating (see also Creation by Secretion). In some places the original god as Khepri, the morning sun, was said to have created himself by word—by calling out his own name (see also Creation by Word).
- « Atoum se manifesta en tant que masturbateur dans Héliopolis. Il saisit son membre et y suscita la jouissance »
Shu et Tefnut.Modifier
Shu et Tefnut, dans un acte incestueux, répété pendant des siècles par les pharaons, rois-dieux, produisent le dieu Geb (la terre) et Nut (le ciel). Tout ceci sous l'oeil non interférent de l'oeil, le dieu original. Geb et Nout engendrèrent ensuite Osiris et Isis, Seth et Nephtys, à nouveau deux couples de frères et soeurs. Des enfants de Geb et Nout naissent tous les enfants d'Egypte.
Geb et NoutModifier
The best known and most frequently depicted event in the Egyptian creation is the separation of the world parents, Geb and Nut (see also World Parent Creation). Nut is typically seen arching as the sky over her prone brother, Geb. As the earth, he longs for the moist gifts of the sky so he may procreate, and frequently he is shown with an erect phallus. The world parents are separated by their father, Shu (air), presumably signifying the necessity of differentiation and order rather than total union or nondifferentiation (chaos) for creation.
Ra veut refaire le mondeModifier
An early version of what became the Geb and Nut story says that when they perceived the old age of Ra and suspected his weakness, the people began to rebel against him. Not pleased, Ra held a meeting of his Eye, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, and Nun (the primeval waters) and told them that he had decided to destroy the people for their arrogance. At Nun's suggestion, Ra sent out his Eye to terrorize the people, and they fled into the desert, most to their death.
Wishing to retire, Ra and Nun asked Shu to place himself beneath Nut and raise her up. When he did so, she became the great sky cow, and the earth formed as Geb. A new creation began.